Preferred Sample Type

Albumin (Urine) (microalbumin ACR)

Suitable Specimen Types

  • Plain Spot Urine
2 mL urine (minimum sample volume 0.5 mL)

Sample Processing in Laboratory


Sample Preparation

Perform urine creatinine analysis also

Turnaround Time

1 day

Sample Stability

4 ÂșC

Albumin (Urine) (microalbumin ACR)

General Information

In insulin-dependent diabetes, detection of early proteinuria usually indicates diabetic nephropathy which frequently progresses to end-stage renal failure.

As many as 45% of insulin-dependent diabetics will develop diabetic nephropathy. Patients with microalbuminuria and an increased GFR (>150 mL/min) have a 20 fold chance of developing clinical albuminuria and nephropathy.

Microalbuminuria (30-300mg albumin/day) occurs long before clinical proteinuria becomes evident and has been shown to indicate a highly increased risk of renal failure. These smaller increases in urinary albumin are treatable by improving glycaemic control and arterial blood pressure.

Urine samples may be timed collections thus allowing albumin excretion rate to be calculated. The National Kidney Foundation recommends microalbuminuria to be measured on random urine specimens in which the albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) is calculated.



Patient Preparation



Urine samples may be timed collections thus allowing albumin excretion rate to be calculated or they may be random specimens in which the albumin:creatinine ratio is calculated.

Please note, from 22/7/19 analysis performed using Abbott Alinity analyser.   The test is awaiting UKAS accreditation.

Reference Range

  • Male                     <2.5 mg/mmol
  • Female                 <3.5 mg/mmol
Reference range only applicable in patients with Diabetes Mellitus


  • EQA Scheme?: Yes
  • EQA Status: RIQAS and NEQAS

The laboratories at Heartlands Hospital, Good Hope Hospital and Solihull Hospital form part of the services provided by University Hospitals Birmingham and are UKAS (United Kingdom Accreditation Service) accredited to the ISO 15189:2012 standard. For a list of accredited tests and other information please visit the UKAS website using the following link:

  • Heartlands, Good Hope and Solihull Hospital pathology laboratories are a UKAS accredited medical laboratory No.8217
  • United Kingdom Health Security Agency laboratory is a UKAS accredited medical laboratory No.8213

Tests not appearing on the UKAS Schedule of Accreditation currently remain outside of our scope of accreditation. However, these tests have been validated to the same high standard as accredited tests and are performed by the same trained and competent staff.

For further test information, please visit the test database:

Protection of personal information - Laboratory Medicine comply with the Trust Data Protection policy and have procedures in place to allow the Directorate and its employees to comply with the Data Protection act  1998 and associated best practice and guidance.

For further information contact Louise Fallon, Quality Manager, 0121 424 1235